Analysing Evidence

This page is about how to analyse your evidence and writing a conclusion. It is intended to help students analyse the results of their science GCSE investigations. It has been written to assist students following the London GCSE Syllabus, but can be used by others.


  1. What the Syllabus says
  2. What you should do
  3. Subheadings for your discussion
  4. Check List

First of all what does the syllabus say? Well, here it is:

Explain simply what has been found out. 2a.

Present findings in the form of simple diagrams, charts or graphs. 4a.

Identify trends and patterns in observations or measurements. 4b.

Construct and use appropriate diagrams, charts graphs (with lines of best fit), or use numerical methods, to process evidence for a conclusion. 6a.

Draw a conclusion consistent with their evidence and relate this to scientific knowledge and understanding. 6b.

Use detailed scientific knowledge and understanding to explain a valid conclusion drawn from the processed evidence. 8a.

Explain how results support or undermine the original prediction when one has been made. 8b.

The numbers at the end of each paragraph represent the level you will achieve if you have fulfilled the criterion given in the paragraph.

These guidelines show marks 2, 4, 6 & 8. If you have written enough to score 4 but not quite enough to get 6 you will end up with a level 5. Level 8 is the highest level which you can get.

Now for what you should do:

  1. firstly chose the most sensible way to display your results;
  2. secondly, explain what happened in your experiments;
  3. thirdly draw conclusions from your results;
  4. lastly check that you have met the marking criteria given above.

Your discussion could have the following sections:

  1. Analysis of Results
  2. Conclusions
  3. Evaluation

Information about what to include under these sub-headings is on the main investigations page.

When you have written the first draft of you discussion use the check list given below to ensure that you have included everything:

  1. What the investigation is about.
  2. What you already know.
  3. Used your scientific knowledge to explain your results.
  4. Comment on your predictions = true or false.
  5. Explain how your results prove//disprove your predictions.