Group V

Nitrogen Phosphorus Arsenic Antimony Bismuth
N P As Sb Bi

Nitrogen is a relatively inert gas. It makes up about four fifths of the atmosphere.

Phosphorus is a non-metal.

Arsenic is another non-metal.

Antimony is also a non-metal.

Bismuth is a what? Surprise, these elements are all in the same group: so what do you think?


Electrons have a very tiny mass: they don’t have “Zero Mass” as it says in the animation. However, you don’t need to take account of their mass when you are calculating molecular weights: for your purposes, the atomic mass is calculated by adding the number of neutrons to the number of protons.

Since electrons do actually have some mass, they cannot travel at the speed of light. They would need an infinite amount of energy to travel this fast. However, they do buzz around the atomic nucleus at very fast speeds.

When an atom is excited, ie. it has too much energy, electrons can escape from their normal orbits into higher energy orbits or escape the atom completely; this would leave the atom in an ionised state.

The animation shows electron pairs: since electrons have negative charges, they repel each other so they would normally be at opposite ends of their orbit.