Group III

Boron Aluminium Gallium Indium Thallium
B Al Ga In Tl

Boron is a non-metal.

Aluminium is a metal. It is used to make “alloy”. An alloy is a mixture of metals and has slightly different properties than the individual metals it is composed of. Solder is a mixture of lead and tin. It has a lower melting point than either lead or tin. What you might call alloy (as opposed to an alloy) is a mixture of aluminium and magnesium and is used to make alloy wheeels. This is stronger than either pure aluminium or magnesium, but very much lighter than steel.

Gallium is a metal.

Indium is a metal.

Thallium is a metal.


Electrons have a very tiny mass: they don’t have “Zero Mass” as it says in the animation. However, you don’t need to take account of their mass when you are calculating molecular weights: for your purposes, the atomic mass is calculated by adding the number of neutrons to the number of protons.

Since electrons do actually have some mass, they cannot travel at the speed of light. They would need an infinite amount of energy to travel this fast. However, they do buzz around the atomic nucleus at very fast speeds.

When an atom is excited, ie. it has too much energy, electrons can escape from their normal orbits into higher energy orbits or escape the atom completely; this would leave the atom in an ionised state.

The animation shows electron pairs: since electrons have negative charges, they repel each other so they would normally be at opposite ends of their orbit.